The History of Christmas Through the Ages Images and Attributions


Saturn with head protected by winter cloak

By Carole Raddato from FRANKFURT, Germany - Saturn with head protected by winter cloak, holding a scythe in his right hand, fresco from the House of the Dioscuri at Pompeii, Naples Archaeological Museum, CC BY-SA 2.0,

Mosaic of Sol Invictus

By User:Leinad-Z - [1], Public Domain,

Dice players in a wall painting from Pompeii

By WolfgangRieger - Filippo Coarelli (ed.): Pompeji. Hirmer, München 2002, ISBN 3-7774-9530-1, p. 146, Public Domain,

Dionysos, Roman Mosaic

Cartwright, M. (2013, June 13). Dionysos, Roman Mosaic. World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved from

An illustration of people collecting a Yule log from Chambers Book of Days (1832)

By Robert Chambers - The Book of Days (1864), p. 734.[1], Public Domain,

The Three Wise Kings

By Cresques Abraham - This file comes from Gallica Digital Library and is available under the digital ID btv1b55002481n, Public Domain,

Medieval dice found in Bergen

By Nobelse - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,

Meteņi mumming group in Latvia, 2016

By Spekozols - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,

The Pelican Portrait by Nicholas Hilliard

By Nicholas Hilliard (called) (1547 - 1619)Details on Google Art Project - VgG8ronTPh8jDg at Google Cultural Institute maximum zoom level, Public Domain,

Portrait commemorating the defeat of the Spanish Armada

By Formerly attributed to George Gower -, Public Domain,

St Edward's Crown, the centrepiece of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom

By Firebrace - Own work, Public Domain,

Second version of The Puritan, a late 19th-century sculpture by Augustus Saint-Gaudens

By Smallbones - Own work, CC0,

1659 public notice in Boston deeming Christmas illegal

By Unknown author -, direct link:, Public Domain,

Queen Victoria, 1819–1901, by Bassano, 1882. Glass copy negative, half-plate

By Alexander Bassano - Original text: Scanned from the book 'The National Portrait Gallery History of the Kings and Queens of England' by David Williamson, ISBN 1855142287, p. 153.See here for 1901 publication. National Portrait Gallery: NPG x95802, Public Domain,

Two 1899 Christmas Cards

Museum, T. B. (2022, December 05). Two 1899 Christmas Cards. World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved from

Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha: Early daguerreotype with hand-colouring, 1848

By William Edward Kilburn - Royal Collection RCIN 2932487, Public Domain,

Grimaldi (right) performing the comic dance during a pantomime

By George Cruikshank (illustrator) - Houghton Library, Public Domain,

An 1887 painting A Christmas Carol in Lucerne by Hans Bachmann. (Kunstmuseum Basel, Switzerland)

Bachmann, H. (2023, December 04). A Christmas Carol in Lucerne by Bachmann. World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved from

The First Printed Christmas Card

London, V. a. A. M. (2022, December 05). The First Printed Christmas Card. World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved from

Saint Nicholas with a halo, by Jaroslav Čermák

By Jaroslav Čermák - Galerie Art Praha, Public Domain,

The dowry for the three virgins (Gentile da Fabriano, c. 1425, Pinacoteca Vaticana, Rome)

By Gentile da Fabriano - The Yorck Project (2002) 10.000 Meisterwerke der Malerei (DVD-ROM), distributed by DIRECTMEDIA Publishing GmbH. ISBN: 3936122202., Public Domain,

First edition cover (1843)

By Charles Dickens, Photographer: Heritage Auctions, Inc. Dallas, Texas -, Public Domain,

"Marley's Ghost", original illustration by John Leech from the 1843 edition

By John Leech - This file has been provided by the British Library from its digital collections.Catalogue entry., Public Domain,

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